Functional medicine emphasizes nutrition and lifestyle treatments to address the underlying issues that lead to chronic illness. At Functional Medicine of Idaho, we ask our patients to implement specific nutritional and lifestyle modifications in order to reach optimal health. 

We understand that change can be hard. As a patient, you may be feeling overwhelmed or unsure where to start with the changes being suggested by your provider or nutritionist. Even if you are highly motivated to make healthy changes in your life, doing so without a strategic plan or without support can leave you feeling burnt out and “over it” very quickly. This is why we encourage every patient to work with a health coach who can offer guidance and support as you navigate the big modifications to your lifestyle and nutrition.


Functional Medicine of Idaho health coaches use the SMART Goal Technique to help patients set and attain reasonable goals. Setting a SMART goal requires you to think about the many factors involved in achieving your goal.

S: Specific

If your goal is not clear, you won’t be able to distinctly focus on it. If you set a goal to eat healthier, does eating one more vegetable than yesterday mean you’ve hit your goal? Try stating your goal as specifically as possible as an activity-related objective that you would like to meet. Being specific helps you shape your goal into an instruction, telling yourself exactly what to do. By including the method, not just the outcome, within your goal, your brain is primed to see challenges or barriers as a natural part of the process and will be ready for problem-solving engagement.

General goal: “I want to eat healthier.”
Specific goal: ‘I will eat 5 servings of fruits or vegetables every day.”

General goal: “I want to sleep more.”
Specific goal: “I will be in bed by 10:30 pm 5 nights this week.”

General goal: “I want to reduce my stress.”
Specific goal: “I will practice my heart math breathing technique for 10 minutes every morning.”

Goal setting tip: Making a goal for an action that you want to complete, rather than one you want to avoid, tends to be more effective. 

M: Measurable

You will need to be able to quantify and track your progress towards your goal. Adding quantifiable criteria to your goal allows you to measure your progress. Keep an actual log of your progress. Being able to count off the numbers will feel good, and measuring will allow you to visibly see your progress and discourage you from cheating. Measuring your results can also help you evaluate your methods and adjust your goals, as necessary, along the way. To set a measurable goal, define what evidence will provide that you’ve hit your target. Ask yourself, “How will I know that I’ve achieved my goal?” 

Unmeasurable goal: “I want to eat healthier.”
Measurable goal: “I will eat 8 servings of fruits or vegetables every day.”

Unmeasurable goal: “I want to get more exercise.”
Measurable goal: “I will go to the gym and walk 2 miles on the treadmill 3 times this week.” 

Unmeasurable goal: “I want to work on my flexibility.”
Measurable goal: “I will stretch  for 10 minutes every evening for the next month.”

Goal setting tip: Get creative with your tracking methods: a calendar, notebook, or tracking app are all great options. 

A: Achievable

It can be tempting to get excited about making changes to your lifestyle and set goals that aren’t achievable within the timeline you’ve selected or because the goal itself doesn’t fit within your lifestyle or schedule. Your goal can be ambitious, and should certainly challenge you, but should not be impossible to attain. If your goal is too big or does not easily fit into your current lifestyle or schedule, begin by breaking it into smaller objectives that challenge you to follow through so you’ll be less likely to get distracted or discouraged. 

Unachievable goal: I want to meditate for 20 minutes every morning.  (But my mornings are completely chaotic while I get my children out of bed, fed, and to school on time before I go to work.)
Achievable goal: Once my kids are asleep in the evening, I will sit in meditative silence for 20 minutes before I go to bed. I will do this every night for the next 30 days.
Achievable goal: I will take my lunch break in my car 3 days this week so that I can meditate for 20 minutes before eating and returning to my desk.

Unachievable goal: I want to run a half marathon next month. (But I can’t run more than a mile without feeling sick.)
Achievable goal: I will run 3 times a week, starting with 1 mile and adding a quarter mile distance each run until I reach 13 miles.
Achievable goal: I will join a running group this month to find social connection and motivation as I train for a half marathon.

Goal setting tip: Choose a goal that you are sure you can reach, but that will challenge you to follow through with smaller, more attainable actions required to achieve it.

R: Relevant

Your goals need to align with your values and long-term objectives. If you are not inspired and motivated by your goal, you will be unlikely to work on it. If you are not completely determined to achieve your goal, obstacles and distractions will easily veer you off track. When we make goals, we need to encompass the mind, body, and spirit. Ask yourself, “Why do I want to achieve this goal?”

Irrelevant goal: I want to lose weight. (Because my doctor told me to.)
Relevant goal: I will exercise 4 times each week for 3 month so that I will have more energy to play with my kids. 

Irrelevant goal: I want to stop drinking coffee. (But I have a morning ritual of drinking coffee and reading the paper to prepare for my day. I do not want to give my ritual.)
Relevant goal: I will maintain my morning ritual, but will swap my coffee for herbal tea. 

Irrelevant goal: I want to run a half marathon. (But I hate running).
Relevant goal: I will swim (or Zumba, or cycle, or do yoga – insert the type of workout YOU enjoy here) 4 times a week for the next 3 months. 

Goal setting tip: As you break down your big goals into smaller, achievable goals, be sure that each step of attaining the goal makes sense to you and has some level of personal importance or relevance for you.

T: Time-Bound

Goals should be time-bound. When will you know that you’ve achieved your goal? When setting your health goals, it’s most helpful to choose a timeframe that is realistic and not too far into the future. Long, far-off deadlines can sabotage your success. Give yourself a finish line that you can see. This will help you prioritize the steps in your goal, and give you motivation to hit the finish line. When you hit that finish line, evaluate and set a new goal based on your progress. 

Non time-bound goal: I want to get fit this year.
Time-bound goal: I will lift weights 3 times a week for 10 weeks. 

Non time-bound goal: I want to stop drinking caffeine.
Time-bound goal: I will be caffeine free in 2 weeks by reducing my caffeine intake by 10 mg every day. 

Non time-bound goal: I want to eat a plant based diet.
Time-bound goal: I will eat 8 servings of fruits and vegetables every day for 6 weeks. 

Goal setting tip: Choosing the right time frame is key. Too little time will mean your goal isn’t attainable, and too much time may deter you from finding the motivation to start working toward it.

Additional Goal Setting Tips

  • Only adopt goals that are meaningful to you. Someone else’s goals will not work for you.
  • Write your SMART goals down, so you can refer to them and review your progress. Share your goals with others for motivation and accountability. 
  • Focus on the process, not just the outcome. Keep the outcome in mind, but spend your mental energy focusing on how you will reach your goal.
  • Making adjustments is part of any goal achievement process. Don’t feel bad if you don’t reach your goal. Instead, evaluate your goals, readjust as necessary, and jump back in.

Work with a Functional Medicine of Idaho Health Coach for extra support setting SMART goals and maintaining motivation as you work towards them.

Josiah Smith, PA-C

Josiah Smith graduated with his Bachelor of Science degree in Physician Assistant Studies from Drexel University in 1998. He continued his education and received his Master of Physician Assistant Studies in 2007. He served as a medical officer with the Army National Guard and earned the rank of Captain. He started his career in Family Practice and moved onto Emergency Medicine and Urgent Care. When he experienced overwhelming life stressors ten years ago, he sought out conventional medical care and all that was offered were several “pills.” Not satisfied that this would fix the “root” cause of his symptoms, Josiah found a Functional Medical provider that transformed his wellbeing through a lifestyle and root cause resolution approach. Impressed with his health transformation, he started his own pursuit of being trained in Functional Medicine.

Josiah opened his own functional medicine consulting practice in Las Vegas with several health coaches. His professional pursuits continued into learning how to optimize the body’s healing potential via other therapeutic interventions. He uses regenerative medicine for aesthetics, sexual wellness, repair and recovery of the body. These include peptide therapy, hormone optimization, IV infusions, Acoustic Wave Therapy, and other cellular interventions to enhance vitality and longevity.

In his personal time he enjoys international traveling and exploring cultures, history, and cuisine with his wife and four teenagers. Josiah also enjoys hiking and skiing.

Kristin Gomes, APRN-CNM

Kristin is a Certified Nurse Midwife.  She received a bachelor’s of science in nursing from California State University San Bernardino.  After working as a registered nurse in transplant, oncology, and palliative care Kristin switched her focus to gynecology, labor, and birth.  Recognizing the need to emphasize health, wellness, and prevention in our culture, she saw an opportunity to impact the health of women and their families through education focused, more personalized, family centered care. Thus, Kristin pursued a graduate degree in nurse midwifery at New York University and graduated with honors in 2014.  She has practiced as a nurse midwife in the Treasure Valley since 2015.

Throughout her years of practice Kristin has always strived to provide an inclusive and holistic approach to healthcare. She aspires to meet each woman where they are and collaborate with them on their health journey.  She has seen the profound difference in treating a symptom vs treating the cause while supporting the body.  The desire to support the innate healing and protective qualities of the body through evidenced based care led to her discovery of functional medicine.  In late 2020 she began her training through the Institute for Functional Medicine which she completed in the winter of 2022.  At Functional Medicine of Idaho alongside the community of practitioners, nutritionists, nurses, and health coaches Kristin has the opportunity to provide a personalized and integrative women’s health experience focused on individualized wellness. 

Kristin feels deeply connected to nature.  When she’s not in the mountains camping, hiking, kayaking, or fishing you can find her tending her garden beds or on her yoga mat.  Her favorite season is winter, preferably one with lots of snow, and her happy place is on her skis with her husband and daughter.

Allyson Howarth, DNP, FNP-C, WHNP

Allyson Howarth is a board-certified Family Nurse Practitioner and Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner. She offers functional primary care and women’s health care. Allyson's heart for women's health began as a labor and delivery nurse in 2011 out of a strong desire to provide a safe place for women to heal physically, emotionally and spiritually. 

Allyson discovered Functional Medicine through her own personal struggle with autoimmune disease. When traditional medicine didn’t have a solution for her poor health, she wholeheartedly embraced functional medicine in her quest for healing. She is passionate about helping her patients find healing and is excited to be able to implement functional medicine principles with conventional healthcare. 

Allyson is working towards her certification with the institute of Functional Medicine. Allyson earned her Bachelor of Science in Nursing from Oregon Health Science University, a Master of Art in Human Services with an emphasis in Health and Wellness from Liberty University, and both of her Master of Science in Nursing and Doctorate of Nursing Practice from Frontier Nursing University. 

Outside of work, Allyson’s favorite activity is spending time with her family. She also enjoys reading, researching, traveling, biking on the Green Belt, and hiking with her husband.

Gavin Guard, PA-C, MPAS, CISSN, Pn1

Gavin Guard believes that the average doctor visit is not giving patients the time and support they deserve. Gavin graduated summa cum laude from Whitman College with a bachelor’s in biochemistry before completing graduate medical school training at the University of Colorado. His main clinical focuses include gastrointestinal disorders, thyroid and hormone health, as well as metabolic disease like diabetes, high cholesterol, and heart disease. Aside from patient care, Gavin is also publishing medical literature in the functional medicine field. He wakes up every morning to help patients find lasting solutions to their health so that they can experience hope and feel restored. When not in the clinic or reading papers, you can find him spending time with his wife and two young girls or pumping iron in the weight room.

Specialties include:
- Digestive concerns (IBS, SIBO, reflux, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, IBD)
- Longevity and metabolic health (heart health, blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol, weight loss)
- Mold illness and toxicity
- Thyroid health
- Hormones (testosterone, menopause, female hormones)
- Autoimmunity
- Brain fog, fatigue

Jennifer Paulson, DNP, FNP-BC, APHN-BC, IFMCP

Jennifer Paulson joins FMI after 8 years of owning her private practice in Bend, Oregon. She is dually board-certified as a Family Nurse Practitioner and Advanced Practice Holistic Nurse. She earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice degree from University of Arizona and completed her graduate studies in Nursing at Concordia University in Wisconsin. 

Jennifer discovered early in her primary care role as a nurse practitioner that the band-aid approach used in medical settings was not the way she wanted to practice. She knew from her personal healing journey with autoimmune disease and recovering her children from neurodevelopmental disorders she needed a different model to provide care to her patients. She earned her certification with the Institute of Functional Medicine in 2017.  Her practice style is unique and she truly meets each patient where they are on their wellness journey while holding space for learning and growing. She enjoys caring for patients of all ages. 

Jennifer also holds certifications and advanced studies in mind-body-medicine such as Yoga, Reiki, HeartMath™, Ayurveda, Holistic Pelvic Care™, and lifestyle genomics. Jennifer is an educator at heart and has held faculty positions with Georgetown University and currently teaches Doctor of Nutrition students at University of Western States. 

In her time outside of work, Jennifer loves gardening, baking, fishing and spending time with her growing family-husband, children, grandchildren, cats, and dogs.  

Christa Inzer Castillo MSPAS, PA-C, MPH

Christa Inzer Castillo is a board certified Physician Assistant, with 14 years of experience in  family practice, who offers primary and acute care for adults and children. She loves the opportunity to get to know entire families and develop relationships with her  patients. While trained in western medicine she has long infused a whole person and natural  approaches to achieve best patient outcomes.  

Personal experience, specifically a mother who has responded poorly to the traditional western  medical approach, but used whole body approaches to find answers inspired Christa to begin  the process of understanding root cause medicine. The desire to help answer “why” is this  going on in the body and “how” to help the body heal has become a passion. The process of  teasing out each person’s unique puzzle is fascinating and rewarding, especially when you start  to see health restored.  

Christa grew up in the Treasure Valley, graduated from Meridian High School, earned her  Bachelor of Science in Biology from the College of Idaho. In 2008 she earned her Master of  Science in Physician Assistant Studies and Masters of Public Health from Touro University in  Vallejo, California.  

Outside of the clinic, Christa enjoys spending time with her husband and 3 children. You can  find them outside working on numerous projects with chickens, goats, rabbits, dogs, cats, and  gardening, or hiking and exploring the great state of Idaho. She also loves to serve in her  church and squeeze in a swim.

Stephanie Ritari, PA-C

Stephanie Ritari is a board-certified Physician Assistant who offers primary care for adults at the Functional Medicine of Idaho Meridian Wellness Center. She specializes in Internal Medicine and has spent the majority of her career in the field of cardiovascular disorders.

Stephanie has more than 15 years experience as a Physician Assistant in a variety of medical areas, including cardiology and electrophysiology. Holistic practices have long been a part of Stephanie’s lifestyle, with a particular focus on clean living and nutrition. She has embedded functional principles into her conventional medicine practice throughout her career. After watching family members struggle to find answers for their chronic illnesses, Stephanie became more interested in finding ways to take a root cause approach in her own practice. Wanting to provide a proactive, comprehensive, and preventative scope of care for her patients, Stephanie began studying functional medicine. In 2021, she joined Functional Medicine of Idaho, where she is able to provide evidence based, root cause medicine.

Stephanie earned her Bachelor's of Science in Exercise Physiology from the University of Montana and her masters in Physician Assistant Studies from Rocky Mountain College. She is currently working towards her certification with The Institute for Functional Medicine. 

In her spare time, Stephanie enjoys spending time with her husband, son, and dog doing outdoor activities including biking, hiking, and skiing. She also loves interior design and traveling, and is hoping to start her own garden in the near future.

Dr. David Musnick, MD, IFMCP

David Musnick is a board-certified medical doctor who offers in-person and telemedicine care from the Functional Medicine of Idaho Eagle clinic. Dr. Musnick offers Functional Medicine, Sports Medicine, Functional Immunology, and Primary Care for adults and teenagers. He specializes in sports medicine, internal medicine, frequency specific microcurrent (FSM), scars, homeopathy, prolotherapy, and low-level laser treatments. 

Dr. Musnick is interested in getting to the root of underlying causes and factors that affect healing, including diet, sleep, exercise, stress, mood, GI health, brain region health, toxins, mold,  hormones, infections, and electromagnetic fields (EMF). He is excellent at Orthopedic diagnosis trying to determine which tissues are causing pain, what the issue with the tissue is and what is going on in the pain processing system. He has developed a unique program to heal the brain after Concussion that is based on what actually goes on in the brain after head injury. His program integrates: diet, supplements, sleep, exercise and microcurrent and brain training to heal the brain after concussion. He also applies this to other brain based disorders including cognitive impairment and dementia. He has a special interest in autoimmune disorders and has studied Functional Immunology.  He is one of the top 10 clinicians in the world with Frequency Specific Microcurrent and he teaches at Microcurrent meetings. He is also very experienced in Prolotherapy regenerative injections to build more ligament to stabilize a joint or area of the spine.  

In medical school, Dr. Musnick spent a year studying nutrition. He has always been interested in the complex interrelationships of different systems of the body. Taking on challenges in the past, he created new treatment programs to heal the brain after concussion, treat chronic pain, arthritis, and tough SIBO and IBS cases. Dr. Musnick wants to help his patients achieve the highest level of health, vitality and function.

After his internal medicine residency in Seattle, Dr. Musnick completed a fellowship in sports medicine where he became interested in helping patients get back to optimal musculoskeletal health and eventually back to their favorite activities. He quickly learned that many areas of the body were interrelated and started learning more about nutrition, supplements, and other facets of functional medicine. Dr. Musnick has more than 24 years of experience in Functional Medicine and achieved a very high level of both experience and expertise with many health conditions. He is also the author of the book, Conditioning for Outdoor Fitness, and helped in writing textbook chapters on arthritis and concussions.

Dr. Musnick received his Doctorate of Medicine from the University of California, San Francisco. He is certified through the Institute for Functional Medicine as an IFMCP. He also studied in the French school of Homeopathy. He is uniquely rare in that he teaches Frequency Specific Microcurrent (FSM) and how to integrate it with functional medicine. 

In his spare time, Dr. Musnick enjoys hiking, nature photography, cooking healthy food, mountain biking, and skiing.

IFM Certified Practitioner

Aaron Dykstra, DNP, FNP-C

Aaron Dykstra is a board certified Family Nurse Practitioner with a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree. He offers pediatric primary care, including well-child checks and acute visits, in the Pediatric Department of the Functional Medicine of Idaho Meridian Wellness Center.

Functional and alternative therapies were a part of Aaron’s life from a young age, and he has implemented these principles into his conventional medicine practice throughout his career. Aaron has more than 8 years of experience in a variety of medical disciplines, including pediatrics, obstetrics, mental health, and nutrition. He has practiced in rural health clinics in California and Oregon. For the last 5 years, Aaron has had a passion for working with children and implementing positive change through the family unit. Aaron joined the Functional Medicine of Idaho Pediatric Team in 2021. His enthusiasm for educating children and parents about living a healthy lifestyle allows him to provide preventative and acute care for infants, children, and adolescents. 

Aaron obtained his Bachelor of Science in Nursing at Brigham Young University. He earned both his Master’s of Science in Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice through the University of Arizona. He has obtained a Family Herbalist and Family Nutritionist certifications through The School of Natural Healing by Dr. Christopher. He is currently working towards his certification with The Institute for Functional Medicine.

Outside of work, you will find Aaron spending time with his wife and 5 kids, mountain biking, running, or camping in the backyard. Aaron is a big fan of Master Chef and enjoys cooking.

Nadia Kravchuk, DNP, FNP-C

Nadia Kravchuk is a board certified Family Nurse Practitioner with a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree. She offers functional pediatric primary care, including well-child checks and acute visits, in the Pediatric Department of the Functional Medicine of Idaho Meridian Wellness Center.

Nadia and her family immigrated to the United States in 1989 where they first settled in Oregon and then moved to Idaho in 2001. Complementary medicine practices were embedded into her lifestyle at a young age, and she has implemented these principles into her conventional medicine practice throughout her career. She has more than 15 years experience in a variety of medical environments, including emergency room, intensive care unit, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, family practice, and aesthetics.

Nadia joined Functional Medicine of Idaho so that she can combine functional principles with the foundations of conventional medicine to address the underlying causes of disease and promote optimal wellness. As an avid gardener, beekeeper, and sustainable living enthusiast, she understands the importance and role of optimizing nutrition, sleep, physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. She has a passion for pediatric functional medicine and understands that early recognition and interventions can correct imbalances, prevent chronic illness, and improve overall outcomes for children.

Nadia obtained her Bachelor of Science in Nursing at Northwest Nazarene University. She earned both her Master’s of Science in Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice through Frontier Nursing University. In 2017, she was the recipient of the HCA Excellence in Nursing Award. She is currently working towards her certification with The Institute for Functional Medicine.

Outside of work, you will find Nadia working on her urban homestead, hiking, foraging, camping, snowboarding, and spending time with her husband and her dog, Wolfy. She is also fluent in both English and Russian.